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"I think you guys [gals ?] are the best. Free shipping on hammer products and super fast service. What's not to like?"

Nancy H.


Proline Sports Nutrition & Equipment,

I was shopping for the product below using Google as which time I saw your Google add. This was the first I heard of your company. I went to your site and liked what I saw and proceeded to order the Optygen HP. The order was placed on late Friday afternoon and was delivered (to my surprise) on Saturday. Your service is awesome as well as your price match guarantee. There is no doubt that I will continue to use you in the future, as well as recommend you to others.


Brian H
Aurora, IL
 I am very impressed with your customer service.  I was worried about getting my order with a marathon a week and a half out.  Wow, less than 24 hours and my order was sitting on the porch.  That is phenominal service.  I will definately shop with you again.  I have had free shipping take 10 days.  Proline Sports Nutrition is a site I will recommend to my many running/cycling buddies.  Thanks for the great response.  BTW, that info on the Hammer Nutrition products was wonderful!!  It helped me hone in on my nutrition/hydration plan for my marathon.  I printed off the entire 120 pages!  This is my 4th marathon.  I've trained hard, and my Hammer plan I do believe will give me a PR.

Primal Calm 30 Capsules (formerly Recovox, Proloftin) (PC30)


Recovox was specifically designed to improve athletic performance by promoting faster recovery from workouts. By simply taking two capsules of Recovox each day, your body will be better able to recover properly and endure all of your hard training and racing.

NOTE: Branding of Recovox will now be under the Primal Calm / Proloftin Label, however, the formulation will not change.


Primal Calm was designed to be used safely by anyone who feels that stress is interfering with his or her productiveness, effectiveness or enjoyment of life. Used either by itself or in conjunction with any vitamin formula as a “booster”, Primal Calm can have a noticeable effect in as little as 30 minutes to 2 hours after taking it and can last throughout the day. However, many of Primal Calm’s anti-stress effects and major benefits will come from regular and consistent usage over a longer period of time. If you are always feeling “stressed out”, take Primal Calm daily along with your vitamins. Primal Calm is non-drowsy, non-stimulant and has no side effects.

Phosphatidyl Serine

What it is:
This is the stress superstar. Phosphatidyl serine (PS, for those of us without the biology degree) is a naturally occurring phospholipid. Basically, PS is a compound of two fatty acids and a sugary skeleton (but a good kind called glycerol). It exists in the body in almost all cell membranes, but is particularly prevalent and critical in three primary places, which are all directly related to and impacted by stress: the brain, the muscles, and the immune system. We don't get much PS from our diets and our bodies don't manufacture much, so it is an important nutrient to supplement.

The stress effect:
PS is probably the most important nutrient you can take for fighting stress. Nevertheless, not many "stress-fighting" supplements contain appreciable amounts of PS, because it is such an expensive nutrient. PS not only enriches your brain's ability to fight stress, but it helps your muscles rebuild and nourish themselves, and PS supports your immune system in fighting infection. Significantly, PS has been shown to "blunt" cortisol and ACTH, two of the stress-related hormones that our bodies produce. More importantly, PS does not interfere with abnormally low levels of cortisol - only the unhealthy higher levels generated under stress. And it gets better: PS has also been shown in numerous studies to increase memory, concentration and cognition.

What is Recovox?
Recovox is an all-natural herbal/phytonutrient formula designed to improve workout performance by speeding recovery. It is designed to help balance or mitigate the elevated amounts of cortisol your body secretes in response to training and other forms of high stress. Recovox also provides key "adaptogenic" herbs to help improve energy production through better oxygen utilization. Finally, it provides nutrients that have been shown to reduce anxiety and to support better mental focus. Unlike most macronutrient powders, drinks, bars and gels, Recovox exerts its action by providing "micronutrients" that work within the cell.

Why do I need to speed up my recovery?
When we train, we put stresses on our body that prompt our body to want to rebuild itself and become a little stronger (or faster). However, this positive adaptation to training only works if we allow our body enough rest and provide it enough raw materials to grow back incrementally stronger. Without the rest or proper nutrition, training becomes just a series of accumulated stresses that can lead to a decrease in performance and greater likelihood or illness or injury. Training only works because we allow ourselves to recover. In fact, recovery is the MOST IMPORTANT aspect of the training equation. By speeding up the recovery process, we are able to train harder much sooner, so when recovery is maximized, the net effect is a noticeable improvement in performance.

What is Cortisol and why is it bad?
Cortisol is the most abundant of the gluccocorticoid hormones secreted by the adrenal glands - and the most catabolic (destructive). At normal baseline levels it has several maintenance functions in the human body. However, its most profound effect is as a "fight or flight" hormone. Cortisol is secreted in substantially greater amounts in response to stress, particularly "life or death" situations. In any high stress situation, the more familiar "adrenalin" buys us the first 20 or thirty seconds of fast action, but it is cortisol that gives us an edge for the next several hours. As a survival mechanism, first appearing millions of years ago, you couldn't imagine a more elegant adaptation.

Imagine being chased down by a lion on the plains of Africa. How you handle the next ten or fifteen minutes could determine whether or not you live another ten or fifteen years. After the initial adrenalin rush, the HPA axis at the base of the brain secrets ACTH which causes a flood of cortisol from the adrenals. This cortisol basically stops all growth processes so that any and all available resources can be diverted to the immediate survival effort. It shuts down your immune function (why try to identify something that might kill you in a year when you may not survive the next ten minutes). It stops the uptake of calcium by your bones and it causes the dismantling of your muscles so that branch chain amino acids from those muscles can be sent to the liver and converted to glucose for the brain and other muscles. Once the danger has passed and the stress is gone, your body can spend the next few days or weeks sorting out the metabolic consequences and repairing the damage. That may be acceptable if you are facing an occasional life or death situation - it's not acceptable if you respond to all forms of stress this way and if you intend to improve athletic performance!

So how does exercise (or "training") fit into all this?
Exercise is a form of stress. Unfortunately, the part of the brain that is responsible for stimulating the release of cortisol doesn't know the difference between "good" stress and "bad" stress, so it secretes more of this destructive hormone whenever we do a workout that's longer or more intense than we're used to. The irony is that when we secrete high levels of cortisol we actually impede the growth and repair processes that are necessary for improvement in strength and speed - the very things we are trying to accomplish in training. Cortisol tears muscle tissue down and severely suppresses the immune system, making us most susceptible to injury and nagging illnesses. Chronic high levels of cortisol may also possibly result in increased risk for stress fractures, since calcium uptake by the bones is so reduced. The good news is that if we can reduce the high levels of cortisol we secrete through exercise, we can also reduce much of the damage and setbacks so that we can recover faster and stronger. And the ingredients in Recovox have been shown to do just that.

How does Recovox reduce cortisol?
Recovox contains high levels of the natural phospholipid Phosphatidyl Serine (PS), which has been shown in several studies to help lower the high levels of cortisol that are produced as a direct result of hard exercise. In fact, any micronutrient product sold as a "recovery product" should contain at least 100 mg of PS or it should not be considered a true recovery product (most don't because it is such an expensive ingredient, but it is without a doubt the most effective of all micronutrient supplements affecting cortisol). Recovox also contains L-Theanine, Magnolia, and Beta-Sitosterol all of which have been shown to have a stress-mitigating effect without any known side effects. In fact, L-Theanine and Phosphatidyl Serine are such superior anti-stress nutrients that they are protected by US patents.

What are the other performance enhancing effects of Recovox?
All athletes require huge amounts of oxygen in order to perform at peak levels. In fact, for endurance athletes, the amount of oxygen available to the muscle cells is quite often the factor most dramatically limiting performance. Therefore, Rhodiola Rosea is included in Recovox because of its demonstrated effect at improving oxygen utilization. Furthermore, the L-Theanine in the formula has been shown to promote a higher level of 'alpha" waves in the brain, indicative of a state of "relaxed alertness" and a greater ability to focus on a work effort with minimal anxiety. Elite athletes are known to generate very high alpha wave levels during the best performances. Furthermore, Beta-Sitosterol has been shown to have a post exercise immune-protecting effect. The inclusion of these 5 top nutrients makes Recovox unique and unequalled anywhere in the performance market.

How should I use Recovox during training?
Most exercisers and other "high performance" people take a maintenance or baseline level of 2 capsules a day. This dose supplies 150 mg of pure Phosphatidyl Serine (500 mg of 30% standardized extract), 100 mg of L-Theanine, 100 mg of Rhodiola, 60 mg of Beta-Sitosterol, and 100 mg of Magnolia and should be sufficient to take the "edge" off any higher output of cortisol caused by normal exercise stress. People planning on doing a particularly hard workout should take from two to three times the standard dosage, depending on the intensity and duration of the workout. This dose should be spread out from before the workout - to a few hours within completing the workout (sooner is better). Since stress hormone production peaks during and immediately after the workout, taking Recovox before training ensures that your cortisol "defenses" are in place.

Should I use it when I compete, too?
It depends on the duration of the competition. Many competitive endurance athletes choose NOT to take Recovox the day before and on the day of a long race (three or more hours). During a long endurance race, they actually want the high levels of cortisol to tear down muscle tissue and cannibalize any other growth processes in order to maximize fuel production for the completion of the effort. Although they know it means tearing down the precious muscle they've worked so hard for and compromising the immune system to do it, racing is a supreme effort and it's a sacrifice athlete's are occasionally willing to make. However, after the race is over they would definitely use Recovox to speed up recovery.

In fact, some endurance athletes produce so much cortisol on a day-to-day training basis, that they are unable to produce very much more on the one day they really need it - on race day. By using Recovox during training to support normal adrenal function, you not only spare your valuable muscle tissue on a daily basis and keep your immune system functioning well, but you also ensure that your adrenals are ready to produce as much cortisol as required - if required - when race day arrives. Using a complete high-potency multi-vitamin such as the Damage Control Master Formula helps in this regard as well.

On the other hand, some people, especially those competing in events lasting less than two hours, take extra Recovox before the shorter event because they won't need or don't want to break down or "go catabolic" to finish the event strong. These people also don't want to take a chance on compromising their immune system, since even a short intense event can result in a great deal of cortisol production. You may have noticed that many people come down with a cold or the flu shortly after racing - cortisol may be the reason.

Is Recovox safe to use daily?
Yes. All the ingredients in Recovox are 100% pure and are derived from naturally occurring food-like substances or standardized herbal extracts. Recovox is designed to help your body normalize only the high levels of cortisol. It will not "eliminate" all your cortisol secretion, since some small amount of cortisol is necessary and normal.  

Are there any side effects?
No, there is no build-up of Recovox in your system, which is why it can and should be used daily and taken a few hours before training. There is one other benefit that may be labeled a "side effect": Because Phosphatidyl Serine and L-Theanine are also widely regarded as potent "neuro-enhancers" - substances that support healthy brain chemistry - many athletes notice greater focus, calmness and clarity during their workouts and during races as well as in the workplace.

Is Recovox IOC-legal?
Yes. There is nothing in Recovox that can result in a "positive" test for banned substances. Recovox was designed by Mark Sisson, former head of the International Triathlon Union Anti-doping Commission. It was designed to provide the strongest possible safe and legal recovery-enhancing effect.

Can non-athletes benefit from Recovox?
Absolutely. We all secrete "chronically" high levels of cortisol in response to a variety of stresses (remember, the brain doesn't know the difference between the stress of a saber-tooth tiger chasing us, or the stress of a traffic jam). In fact, most of us secrete far more cortisol in a month than our ancestors probably secreted in a lifetime. That's why doctors only reluctantly give cortisone shots in cases of extreme need.   Because cortisol is such a potent immune suppressor, some health practioners even believe that, as a population, our chronically high cortisol is responsible for our high rates of cancer and heart disease. Therefore, many non-athletes who are in high-stress occupations or who lead otherwise high-stress lifestyles choose to take Recovox as a means of taking the "edge" off their high cortisol production.

The studies show:
Just 75 mg a day can help an adult male reduce his levels of both ACTH and cortisol. PS is necessary to repairing cellular membranes, which are crucial to proper bodily functions. PS is especially helpful in rebuilding muscles after exertion and injury. In double-blind studies (the most reliable studies), PS has been proven to help with brain function - even alleviating certain forms of age-related dementia and mental impairment. Experts consider PS a "general stress" nutrient, helping muscles bounce back, nerves handle a hectic lifestyle, stress hormones stay in balance and concentration improve.

The side effects:
PS has no side effects. Recommended dosage is 100-500 mg per day for active adults, and up to 1000 mg for athletes during intensive training periods or for recovery from injury. Recovox provides 150 mg of PS in a recommended two-capsule serving (or 300 mg if you double the dosage).


What it is:
l-Theanine is often overshadowed by its more famous cousins, but it packs a powerful punch. An amino acid found in green tea, l-theanine is well-documented for its calming, yet non-sedative, effects. The l-Theanine used in Recovox is a patent-protected version called Suntheanine®. Suntheanine is the only 100 percent l-theanineproduct on the market.

The stress effect:
l-Theanine works in the brain to fight stress by increasing alpha wave activity. There are all kinds of different waves in the brain. Beta waves are the stress-producing waves, delta waves cause you to be sleepy, and alpha waves are the most powerful, responsible for your levels of alertness, concentration and relaxation. Stress literally attacks your ability to remain alert, feel at ease, and tackle difficulties. (Creative people are actually proven to have more alpha waves than other folks.) Stress diminishes these alpha waves, which is why when you're stressed, you have a hard time focusing. This is where l-theanine comes in.

The studies show:
l-Theanine increases alpha waves, helping your brain handle stress. But that's not all. l-Theanine has been proven, in over a dozen studies, to promote more refreshing sleep, to help support normal blood pressure ranges, and to increase concentration and focus. l-Theanine has also been shown to help support immune function.

The side effects:
No side effects have ever been documented. A daily dose of 100-200 mg is usually what's recommended. Recovox contains 100 mg per two-capsule dose (and 200 mg if you double the daily dosage)

Magnolia Bark

What it is:
Magnolia bark has been used since the dawn of the first millennia in China to help balance energy or "chi". Translated into Western scientific language, magnolia bark helps to balance unusually high cortisol levels, as occur when we are under stress.

The stress effect:
Magnolia bark not only soothes our frazzled nerves and eases nervous energy, it comforts digestive troubles and aids stomach processes. Magnolia bark has two compounds, called biphenols. One calms and the other stops excess cortisol production.

The studies show:
Magnolia bark has always been used to relax and calm, but new studies show that magnolia bark actually plays a role in helping to balance cortisol levels. High cortisol levels have been linked to increased risk for obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and low immunity. Cortisol is the physical connection between mental or emotional stress and their impact on physical health. Several studies have also shown that magnolia bark may help reduce harmful neurotransmitters in the brain, helping to alleviate stress and anxiety. And a Japanese study shows that magnolia bark is up to a thousand times more potent than vitamin E as an antioxidant.

The side effects:
At high dosages, magnolia bark can act as a mild depressant, causing slight drowsiness. However, one would have to consume significant quantities far beyond any recommended or commonly found dosage. At normal dosages, magnolia bark is similar to l-theanine, having no depressant effect whatsoever, and is far safer than many sedative drugs or depressants. 200-500 mg is the recommended range for daily intake. Recovox contains 100 mg per two capsules (200 mg if you double the dosage under high stress).


What it is:
Beta-sitosterol is a (good) cholesterol-like compound found in many foods, such as nuts, fruits, vegetables and seeds. It's best absorbed in consistent, supplementary form, such as with a pill or vitamin. There are hundreds of "sterols" in the food supply, but beta-sitosterol has specific properties that fight the affects of stress.

The stress effect:
Beta-sitosterol has long been known for its properties that help support healthy cholesterol levels and a healthy immune system, but beta-sitosterol also is excellent for helping muscles to recover from stress, such as after a competition or an injury. It's best when taken after physical exertion or injury, or during times of stress.

The studies show:
Doctors commonly recommend echinacea for its immune-boosting properties, but studies show beta-sitosterol is actually more effective at supporting immunity when the patient is suffering from stress. Studies also point to significant benefits of beta sitosterol as an essential nutrient for those suffering from stress as it affects the muscles and immunity.

The side effects:
Beta-sitosterol isn't dangerous, but to get enough in your diet can be a rather high-caloric undertaking (several handfuls of nuts or nut butters, or constant servings of vegetables throughout the day). It's one of the best immune-supporting nutrients you can take when your body is undergoing stress - whether physical, mental or emotional.

Rhodiola Rosea

What it is:
Also known as the "golden root," the "arctic root," and "Crenulin." Rhodiola is a plant that grows in Siberia. It's been used for thousands of years for a variety of immune and stress purposes. It is known as an "adaptogen" because it helps the body better adapt to stress - in other words, to become more adept at handling future stressors. Rhodiola's main components are rosavin, rosarin, rosin and salidroside. These ingredients help to move fatty acids, enabling greater metabolic ability and can assist in weight loss while dieting. These active ingredients also give the body a burst of energy in general, invigorating the patient both at the cellular repair level and the mental mood level.

The stress effect:
Rhodiola not only fights mental and emotional stress, but can help increase athletic performance, support a healthy immune system, improve concentration and alertness, promote a sense of well-being, and even help with weight loss while dieting or exercising.

The studies show:
Studies point to effective weight loss when rhodiola is consumed, but studies also prove significant benefits for mood, energy levels, concentration, and athletic enhancement. It is able to effectively help alleviate certain states of non-clinical mental depression, and to help the body to process oxygen more efficiently. This manifests as increased energy, vitality, wellbeing, and possible loss of body fat.

The side effects:
Rhodiola has no known side effects. The recommended dose is 100-300 mg per day. Recovox's formula includes 100 mg per two-capsule daily dose (200 mg if you double the normal dosage).

Abstracts & Sources

Phosphatidyl Serine
(Abstract: PS is a phospholipid enriched in the brain, validated through double-blind trials for improving memory, learning, concentration, word recall, and mood in middle- aged and elderly subjects with dementia or age-related cognitive decline. PS has an excellent benefit- to-risk profile. ALC is an energizer and metabolic cofactor which also benefits various cognitive functions in the middle-aged and elderly, but with a slightly less favorable benefit-to-risk profile.
Kidd P.M. (1999).

" A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction."
Altern Med Rev 4: 144-161.

1. Bell JM, Lundberg PK. Effects of a commercial soy lecithin preparation on development of sensorimotor behavior and brain biochemistry in the rat. Dev Psychobiol. 1985 Jan;18(1):59-66.
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3. DiPalma JR. Nutritional pharmacology. Am Fam Physician. 1985 Aug;32(2):171-3.
4. Farquharson J, Jamieson EC, Abbasi KA, Patrick WJ, Logan RW, Cockburn F. Effect of diet on the fatty acid composition of the major phospholipids of infant cerebral cortex. Arch Dis Child. 1995 Mar;72(3):198-203.
5. Fenton WS, Hibbeln J, Knable M. Essential fatty acids, lipid membrane abnormalities, and the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Jan 1;47(1):8-21.
6. Growdon JH, Wurtman RJ. Dietary influences on the synthesis of neurotransmitters in the brain. Nutr Rev. 1979 May;37(5):129-36.
7. Hals J, Bjerve KS, Nilsen H, Svalastog AG, Ek J. Essential fatty acids in the nutrition of severely neurologically disabled children. Br J Nutr. 2000 Mar;83(3):219-25.
8. Jamieson EC, Abbasi KA, Cockburn F, Farquharson J, Logan RW, Patrick WA. Effect of diet on term infant cerebral cortex fatty acid composition. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1994;75:139-41.
9. Jumpsen JA, Lien EL, Goh YK, Clandinin MT. During neuronal and glial cell development diet n - 6 to n - 3 fatty acid ratio alters the fatty acid composition of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 Jul 12;1347(1):40-50.
10. Kelly GS. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Altern Med Rev. 1999 Aug;4(4):249-65.
11. Khalsa DS. Integrated medicine and the prevention and reversal of memory loss. Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 Nov;4(6):38-43.
12. Kohn G, Sawatzki G, van Biervliet JP, Rosseneu M. Diet and the essential fatty acid status of term infants. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1994 Sep;402:69-74.
13. Leathwood PD. Neurotransmitter precursors and brain function. Bibl Nutr Dieta. 1986;(38):54-71.
14. Lutz M. Diet as a determinant of central nervous system development: role of essential fatty acids. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1998 Mar;48(1):29-34.
15. Mahadik SP, Mukherjee S, Horrobin DF, Jenkins K, Correnti EE, Scheffer RE. Plasma membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition of cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenic patients: comparison with bipolar patients and normal subjects. Psychiatry Res. 1996 Jul 31;63(2-3):133-42.
16. Monteleone P, Beinat L, Tanzillo C, Maj M, Kemali D. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology. 1990 Sep;52(3):243-8.
17. Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, Natale M, Kemali D. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;42(4):385-8.
18. Newman PE. Could diet be one of the causal factors of Alzheimer's disease? Med Hypotheses. 1992 Oct;39(2):123-6.
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20. Sato N, Murakami Y, Nakano T, Sugawara M, Kawakami H, Idota T, Nakajima I. Effects of dietary nucleotides on lipid metabolism and learning ability of rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1995 Jul;59(7):1267-71.
21. Wurtman RJ. Nutrients that modify brain function. Sci Am. 1982 Apr;246(4):50-9.)

(Abstract: Since ancient times, it has been said that drinking green tea brings relaxation. The substance that is responsible for a sense of relaxation, is theanine. Theanine is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants and the main component responsible for the exotic taste of ?green' tea. It was found that L-theanine administered intraperitoneally to rats reached the brain within 30 min without any metabolic change. Theanine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and decreased blood pressure significantly in hypertensive rats. In general, animals always generate very weak electric pulses on the surface of the brain, called brain waves. Brain waves are classified into four types, namely small alpha, Greek, small beta, Greek, small delta, Greek and straight theta, small theta, Greek-waves, based on mental conditions. Generation of small alpha, Greek-waves is considered to be an index of relaxation. In human volunteers, small alpha, Greek-waves were generated on the occipital and parietal regions of the brain surface within 40 min after the oral administration of theanine (50-200 mg), signifying relaxation without causing drowsiness.

- "L-theanine?a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans"
Lekh Raj Juneja Nutritional Foods Division, Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd, 1-3 Takaramachi, Yokkaichi, Mie 510-0844, Japan Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan
Available online 17 December 1999.

1. Kakuda T, Nozawa A, Unno T, Okamura N, Okai O. Inhibiting effects of theanine on caffeine stimulation evaluated by EEG in the rat. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000 Feb;64(2):287-93.
2. Kakuda T, Yanase H, Utsunomiya K, Nozawa A, Unno T, Kataoka K. Protective effect of gamma-glutamylethylamide (theanine) on ischemic delayed neuronal death in gerbils. Neurosci Lett. 2000 Aug 11;289(3):189-92.
3. Sadzuka Y, Sugiyama T, Miyagishima A, Nozawa Y, Hirota S. The effects of theanine, as a novel biochemical modulator, on the antitumor activity of adriamycin. Cancer Lett. 1996 Aug 2;105(2):203-9.
4. Sadzuka Y, Sugiyama T, Sonobe T. Efficacies of tea components on doxorubicin induced antitumor activity and reversal of multidrug resistance. Toxicol Lett. 2000 Apr 3;114(1-3):155-62.
5. Sadzuka Y, Sugiyama T, Sonobe T. Improvement of idarubicin induced antitumor activity and bone marrow suppression by theanine, a component of tea. Cancer Lett. 2000 Oct 1;158(2):119-24.
6. Sadzuka Y, Sugiyama T, Suzuki T, Sonobe T. Enhancement of the activity of doxorubicin by inhibition of glutamate transporter. Toxicol Lett. 2001 Sep 15;123(2-3):159-67.
7. Sadzuka Y, Yamashita Y, Sugiyama T, Sonobe T. Effect of dihydrokainate on the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. Cancer Lett. 2002 May 28;179(2):157-63.
8. Sugiyama T, Sadzuka Y, Tanaka K, Sonobe T. Inhibition of glutamate transporter by theanine enhances the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin. Toxicol Lett. 2001 Apr 30;121(2):89-96.
9. Sugiyama T, Sadzuka Y. Combination of theanine with doxorubicin inhibits hepatic metastasis of M5076 ovarian sarcoma. Clin Cancer Res. 1999 Feb;5(2):413-6.
10. Sugiyama T, Sadzuka Y. Enhancing effects of green tea components on the antitumor activity of adriamycin against M5076 ovarian sarcoma. Cancer Lett. 1998 Nov 13;133(1):19-26.
11. Yokogoshi H, Kato Y, Sagesaka YM, Takihara-Matsuura T, Kakuda T, Takeuchi N. Reduction effect of theanine on blood pressure and brain 5-hydroxyindoles in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1995 Apr;59(4):615-8.
12. Yokogoshi H, Kobayashi M. Hypotensive effect of gamma-glutamylmethylamide in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci. 1998;62(12):1065-8.
13. Yokogoshi H, Terashima T. Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines, striatal dopamine release and some kinds of behavior in rats. Nutrition. 2000 Sep;16(9):776-7.
14. Yokogoshi, H., Kato, Y., Sagesaka, Y. M., Takihara-Matsuura, T., Kakuda, T., Takeuchi, N. "Reduction Effect of Theanine on Blood Pressure and Brain 5-Hydroxyindoles in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats." Biosciences, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, April 1995, 59(4): 615-18.
15. Yokogoshi, H., Terashima, T. "Effect of Theanine, R-Glutamylethylamide, on Brain Monoamines, Striatal Dopamine Release and Some Kinds of Behavior in Rats." Nutrition, Sept. 2000, 16(9): 776-77.)

Magnolia Bark
(Abstract:Use of the elevated plus-maze experiment and activity and traction tests in mice have revealed that seven daily treatments with 0.2 mg kg(-1) and higher doses of honokiol, a neolignane derivative extracted from Magnolia bark, had an anxiolytic effect without change in motor activity or muscle tone. Diazepam, 1 mg kg(-1), had the same anxiolytic potential as 0.2 mg kg(-1) honokiol but induced muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine whether honokiol had diazepam-like side-effects. Mice treated with 1-10 mg kg(-1) diazepam, but not those treated with 0.1-2 mg kg(-1) honokiol, for 12 days showed withdrawal symptoms characterized by hyperactivity and running-fit when they were challenge-administered intraperitoneal flumazenil (10 mg kg(-1)) 24 h after the last treatment with diazepam. Oral diazepam (0.5-2 mg kg(-1), 10 min before) dose-dependently prolonged hexobarbital (100 mg kg(-1), i.p.)-induced sleeping, disrupted learning and memory, and inhibited (+)-bicuculline (40 mg kg(-1), i.p.)-induced death. Honokiol (0.2-20 mg kg(-1), p.o., 3 h before) had no such effects. The prolongation by diazepam (1 mg kg(-1)) of hexobarbital-induced sleeping was not modified by honokiol (0.2-20 mg kg(-1)). These results suggest that honokiol is less likely than diazepam to induce physical dependence, central depression and amnesia at doses eliciting the anxiolytic effect. It is also considered that honokiol might have no therapeutic effect in the treatment of convulsion.

-J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Jan;51(1):97-103.
Honokiol, a putative anxiolytic agent extracted from magnolia bark, has no diazepam-like side-effects in mice.
Kuribara H, Stavinoha WB, Maruyama Y.
Department of Neuropsychopharmacology (Tsumura), Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.

1. Hou YC, Chao PD, Chen SY. Honokiol and magnolol increased hippocampal acetylcholine release in freely moving rats. Am J Chin Med. 2000;28(3-4):379-84.
2. Kuribara H, Kishi E, Hattori N, Okada M, Maruyama Y. The anxiolytic effect of two oriental herbal drugs in Japan attributed to honokiol from magnolia bark. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 Nov;52(11):1425-9.
3. Kuribara H, Stavinoha WB, Maruyama Y. Behavioural pharmacological characteristics of honokiol, an anxiolytic agent present in extracts of Magnolia bark, evaluated by an elevated plus-maze test in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1998 Jul;50(7):819-26.
4. Kuribara H, Stavinoha WB, Maruyama Y. Honokiol, a putative anxiolytic agent extracted from magnolia bark, has no diazepam-like side effects in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Jan;51(1):97-103.
5. Liu PS, Chen CC, Kao LS. Multiple effects of honokiol on catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B. 1989 Oct;13(4):307-13.
6. Tachikawa E, Takahashi M, Kashimoto T. Effects of extract and ingredients isolated from Magnolia obovata thunberg on catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Aug 1;60(3):433-40.
7. Tsai TH, Lee TF, Chen CF, Wang LC. Modulatory effects of magnolol on potassium-stimulated 5-hydroxytryptamine release from rat cortical and hippocampal slices. Neurosci Lett. 1995 Feb 15;186(1):49-52.
8. Watanabe, K., Goto, Y., Yoshitomi, K. "Central Depressant Effects of the Extracts of Magnolia Cortex." Chemical and Pharmcological Bulletin (Tokyo), 1973, 21: 1700-8.
9. Watanabe, K., Watanabe, H. Y., Goto, Y., Yamamoto, N., Yoshizaki, M. "Studies on the Active Principles of Magnolia Bark: Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxant Activity of Magnolol and Honokiol." Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 1975, 25: 605-7.
10. Watanabe, K., Watanabe, H., Goto, Y., Yamaguchi, M., Yamamoto, N., Hagino, K. "Pharmacological Properties of Magnolol and Honokiol Extracted from Magnolia Officinalis: Central Depressant Effects." Planta Med, 1983, 49: 103-8.)

Beta Sitosterol
(Abstract:Laboratory and human studies have shown us that when sterols and sterolins are administered together, they enhance the immune system.(1) Thus, sterols and sterolins may have some benefit in A**S and H*V therapy. They do so by stimulating the activity of the immune system, which helps control the multiplication of the virus.(2) Also, in a trial with individuals running a marathon race, the blood work of those taking the sterol/sterolin combination revealed significant increases in total white blood cell count as well as in several lymphocyte counts and better ratios of cortisol to DHEAs.(3) See below for (3):

(3): A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the intake of capsules containing the plant sterols and sterolins (BSS:BSSG mixture) on selected immune parameters of volunteers participating in an ultra-marathon in Cape Town, South Africa. Those runners having received active capsules (n=9) showed less neutrophilia, lymphopenia and leukocytosis when compared to their counterparts having received placebo capsules (n=8): the placebo treated individuals showed significant increases in their total white blood cell numbers as well as in their neutrophils (p=0.03 and 0.03 respectively). Furthermore, statistically significant increases within lymphocyte subsets were observed in the runners having received the active capsules: CD3+ cells increased (p=0.02) as did CD4+ cells (p=0.03). In parallel, the BSS:BSSG capsules decreased the plasma level of IL6 in the runners using the active capsules (p=0.08) and significantly decreased the cortisol: DHEAs ratio (p=0.03), suggesting that these volunteers had less of an inflammatory response and were less immune suppressed during the post-marathon recovery period. These findings justify further investigations into the use of the phytosterols to prevent the subtle immunosuppression associated with excessive physical stress.

-Bouic PJ, Clark and A, Lamprecht J
Int J Sports Med

1. Agren JJ, Tvrzicka E, Nenonen MT, Helve T, Hanninen O. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 2001 Feb;85(2):137-9.
2. Awad AB, Chan KC, Downie AC, Fink CS. Peanuts as a source of beta-sitosterol, a sterol with anticancer properties. Nutr Cancer. 2000;36(2):238-41.
3. Awad AB, Downie A, Fink CS, Kim U. Dietary phytosterol inhibits the growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells grown in SCID mice. Anticancer Res. 2000 Mar-Apr;20(2A):821-4.
4. Awad AB, Downie AC, Fink CS. Inhibition of growth and stimulation of apoptosis by beta-sitosterol treatment of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in culture. Int J Mol Med. 2000 May;5(5):541-5.
5. Awad AB, Fink CS. Phytosterols as anticancer dietary components: evidence and mechanism of action. J Nutr. 2000 Sep;130(9):2127-30.
6. Ayesh R, Weststrate JA, Drewitt PN, Hepburn PA. Safety evaluation of phytosterol esters. Part 5. Faecal short-chain fatty acid and microflora content, faecal bacterial enzyme activity and serum female sex hormones in healthy normolipidaemic volunteers consuming a controlled diet either with or without a phytosterol ester-enriched margarine. Food Chem Toxicol. 1999 Dec;37(12):1127-38.
7. Becker M, Staab D, Von Bergman K. Long-term treatment of severe familial hypercholesterolemia in children: effect of sitosterol and bezafibrate. Pediatrics. 1992 Jan;89(1):138-42.
8. Becker M, Staab D, Von Bergmann K. Treatment of severe familial hypercholesterolemia in childhood with sitosterol and sitostanol. J Pediatr. 1993 Feb;122(2):292-6
9. Bhattacharyya AK, Connor WE, Lin DS. The origin of plant sterols in the skin surface lipids in humans: from diet to plasma to skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1983 Apr;80(4):294-6.
10. Bouic PJ, Lamprecht JH. Plant sterols and sterolins: a review of their immune-modulating properties. Altern Med Rev. 1999 Jun;4(3):170-7.
11. Briones ER, Steiger D, Palumbo PJ, Kottke BA. Primary hypercholesterolemia: effect of treatment on serum lipids, lipoprotein fractions, cholesterol absorption, sterol balance, and platelet aggregation. Mayo Clin Proc. 1984 Apr;59(4):251-7.
12. Drexel H, Breier C, Lisch HJ, Sailer S. Lowering plasma cholesterol with beta-sitosterol and diet. Lancet. 1981 May 23;1(8230):1157.
13. Henneking K, Heckers H. Prostatic adenoma. Indication for therapy using sitosterine-containing phytopharmacologic agents. Med Welt. 1983 May 27;34(21):625-32.
14. Jones PJ, Ntanios FY, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Vanstone CA. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a sitostanol-containing phytosterol mixture with a prudent diet in hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jun;69(6):1144-50.
15. Miettinen TA, Tarpila S. Fecal beta-sitosterol in patients with diverticular disease of the colon and in vegetarians. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1978;13(5):573-6.
16. Nair PP, Turjman N, Kessie G, Calkins B, Goodman GT, Davidovitz H, Nimmagadda G. Diet, nutrition intake, and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer. Dietary cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Oct;40(4 Suppl):927-30.
17. Oster P, Schlierf G, Heuck CC, Greten H, Gundert-Remy U, Haase W, Klose G, Nothelfer A, Raetzer H, Schellenberg B, Schmidt-Gayk H. Sitosterol in familial hyperlipoproteinemia type II. A randomized double-blind cross-over study. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1976 Sep 3;101(36):1308-11.)

Rhodiola Rosea
(Abstract:Rhodiola rosea is a popular plant in traditional medical systems in Eastern Europe and Asian with a reputation for stimulating the nervous system, decreasing depression, enhancing work performance, eliminating fatigue, and preventing high altitude sickness. Rhodiola rosea has been categorised as an adaptogen by Russian researchers due to its observed ability to increase resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stresses. Its claimed benefits include antidepressant, antic****r, cardioprotective, and central nervous system enhancement. Research also indicates great utility in asthenia conditions (decline in work performance, sleep difficulties, poor appetite, irritability, hypertension, headaches, and fatigue) developing subsequent to intense physical or intellectual strain. The adaptogenic, cardiopulmonary protective, and central nervous system activities of Rhodiola rosea have been attributed primarily to its ability to influence levels and activity of monoamines and opioid peptides such as beta-endorphins.
Altern Med Rev 2001; Jun, 6(3): 293-302.
" Rhodiola rosea: A possible plant adaptogen."

1. Linh PT, Kim YH, Hong SP, Jian JJ, Kang JS. Quantitative determination of salidroside and tyrosol from the underground part of Rhodiola rosea by high performance liquid chromatography. Arch Pharm Res 2000 Aug;23(4):349-52.
2. Lishmanov IuB, Naumova AV, Afanas'ev SA, Maslov LN. Contribution of the opioid system to realization of inotropic effects of Rhodiola rosea extracts in ischemic and reperfusion heart damage in vitro. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997 May-Jun;60(3):34-6.
3. Maslova LV, Kondrat'ev BIu, Maslov LN, Lishmanov IuB. The cardioprotective and antiadrenergic activity of an extract of Rhodiola rosea in stress. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1994 Nov-Dec;57(6):61-3.
4. Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res 1999 Jun;13(4):275-91.
5. Spasov AA, Wikman GK, Mandrikov VB, Mironova IA, Neumoin VV. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine 2000 Apr;7(2):85-9.
6. Wang S, Wang FP. Studies on the chemical components of Rhodiola crenulata. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 1992;27(2):117-20.
7. Wang S, You XT, Wang FP. HPLC determination of salidroside in the roots of Rhodiola genus plants. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 1992;27(11):849-52.
8. Xu J, Xie J, Feng P, Su Z. Oxygen transfer characteristics in the compact callus aggregates of Rhodiola sachalinensis. Chin J Biotechnol 1998;14(2):99-107.
9. Yoshikawa M, Shimada H, Horikawa S, Murakami T, Shimoda H, Yamahara J, Matsuda H. Bioactive constituents of Chinese natural medicines. IV. Rhodiolae radix. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1997 Sep;45(9):1498-503.
10. Zhang S, Wang J, Zhang H. Chemical constituents of Tibetan medicinal herb Rhodiola kirilowii. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1991 Aug;16(8):483, 512.
11. Zong Y, Lowell K, Ping JA, Che CT, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH. Phenolic constituents of Rhodiola coccinea, a Tibetan folk medicine. Planta Med 1991 Dec;57(6):589)

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